International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
HRAC GROUP 5 (LEGACY C1 C2) RESISTANT BARNYARDGRASS
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)


PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

France
INTRODUCTION BARNYARDGRASS
Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In France this weed first evolved resistance to Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides in 1982 and infests Corn (maize).   Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides are known as PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (Inhbition of Photosynthesis at PSll - Serine 264 Binders ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to atrazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameBarnyardgrass
SpeciesEchinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli
GroupPSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Herbicidesatrazine
LocationFrance
Year1982
Situation(s)Corn (maize)
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jacques Gasquez 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Jacques Gasquez
De Prado, R, and Menendez, J. Management of herbicide-resistant grass weeds in Europe. In Second International Weed Control Congress - Copenhagen, 1996. pp 393 - 398.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse trials comparing a known susceptible Barnyardgrass biotype with this Barnyardgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 5 resistant Barnyardgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) resistant Barnyardgrass from France please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JACQUES GASQUEZ
Inra
Laboratoire De Malherbologie
702 Hickory Ct
Dijon, 21034, Cedex
France
Email Jacques Gasquez

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in France have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jacques Gasquez for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Barnyardgrass Globally
(Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ArgentinaArgentina 2019 Corn (maize) glyphosate 48 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass18183
2 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2021 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, and profoxydim 1 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass19214
3 AustriaAustria 2011 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 2 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass6747
4 BrazilBrazil 1999 Rice quinclorac 5 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1191
5 BrazilBrazil 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, imazethapyr, penoxsulam, and quinclorac 5 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5484
6 BrazilBrazil 2015 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, penoxsulam, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 5 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis (L/26)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass15069
7 BrazilBrazil 2020 Soybean glyphosate 5 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass19211
8 BulgariaBulgaria 1992 Orchards pendimethalin 6 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass544
9 Canada (Ontario) CanadaOntario1981 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine 7 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass62
10 ChinaChina 1993 Rice butachlor 9 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass69
11 ChinaChina 1993 Rice thiobencarb/benthiocarb 9 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass379
12 ChinaChina 2000 Rice quinclorac 9 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5538
13 ChinaChina 2010 Rice, and Soybean fenoxaprop-ethyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 9 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5474
14 ChinaChina 2011 Rice penoxsulam 9 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5653
15 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1994 Corn (maize) atrazine 12 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5052
16 EgyptEgypt 2009 Rice fenoxaprop-ethyl 15 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7897
17 FranceFrance 1982 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass462
18 FranceFrance 2013 Corn (maize), and Rice foramsulfuron, and penoxsulam 17 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass9934
19 GermanyGermany 2012 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 18 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5738
20 GreeceGreece 1986 Rice propanil 19 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass89
21 ItalyItaly 2000 Rice propanil 24 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5114
22 ItalyItaly 2005 Corn (maize), and Rice azimsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, imazamox, nicosulfuron, and penoxsulam 24 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5356
23 ItalyItaly 2009 Rice azimsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, imazamox, penoxsulam, and profoxydim 24 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5639
24 ItalyItaly 2011 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, and profoxydim 24 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass8904
25 JapanJapan 2010 Rice cyhalofop-butyl 25 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7769
26 PhilippinesPhilippines 2005 Rice butachlor, and propanil 32 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5272
27 PolandPoland 1995 Orchards atrazine 33 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass374
28 South KoreaSouth Korea 2008 Rice azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, flucetosulfuron, halosulfuron-methyl, imazosulfuron, metamifop, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, pyribenzoxim, and pyriminobac-methyl 27 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5525
29 SpainSpain 1992 Corn (maize) atrazine 38 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass171
30 SpainSpain 2015 Corn (maize) nicosulfuron 38 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass11016
31 Sri LankaSri Lanka 1997 Rice propanil 39 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass535
32 ThailandThailand 1998 Rice butachlor, and propanil 47 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1185
33 ThailandThailand 2001 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, and quizalofop-ethyl 47 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5113
34 TurkeyTurkey 2009 Rice bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop-butyl, and penoxsulam 71 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5531
35 UkraineUkraine 2017 Rice imazamox, imazapyr, nicosulfuron, and penoxsulam 230 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass17113
36 United States (Maryland) United StatesMaryland1978 Corn (maize), and Cropland atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass426
37 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1990 Cropland, and Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass399
38 United States (Texas) United StatesTexas1991 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass271
39 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri1994 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1082
40 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1995 Rice propanil 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1046
41 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana1998 Rice quinclorac 45 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1180
42 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas1999 Rice propanil, and quinclorac 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass1188
43 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2000 Rice cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, molinate, and thiobencarb/benthiocarb 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5136
44 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2008 Rice clomazone 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly (F4/13)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass5563
45 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2011 Rice fenoxaprop-ethyl, imazamox, imazethapyr, propanil, and quinclorac (MOA in monocots) 45 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
Inhibition of Cellulose Synthesis (L/26)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass8901
46 United States (Louisiana) United StatesLouisiana2013 Rice imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7786
47 UruguayUruguay 2013 Rice quinclorac 73 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7812
48 UruguayUruguay 2013 Rice imazapic, and imazapyr 73 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
79Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrass7813
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