International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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HRAC GROUP 5 (LEGACY C1 C2) RESISTANT ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
(Poa annua)


PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

United States, Oregon
INTRODUCTION ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Oregon this weed first evolved resistance to Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides in 2000 and infests Grass seed.   Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides are known as PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (Inhbition of Photosynthesis at PSll - Serine 264 Binders ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to diuron, and metribuzin and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Nov 19, 2019 )

Common NameAnnual Bluegrass
SpeciesPoa annua
GroupPSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Herbicidesdiuron, and metribuzin
LocationUnited States, Oregon
Year2000
Situation(s)Grass seed
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Lemma Mengistu, and George Mueuller-Warrant 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

MECHANISM

psbA Mutation (valine219 to isoleucine) in Poa annua resistant to metribuzin and diuron.
Lemma W Mengistu  George W Mueller‐Warrant  Aaron Liston  ­Reed E Barker

First published: 25 February 2000 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1526-4998(200003)56:3<209::AID-PS117>3.0.CO;2-8

Abstract
The herbicide‐binding region of the chloroplast psbA gene from a total of 20 biotypes of Poa annua L resistant and susceptible to metribuzin and diuron was selectively amplified using PCR. Sequence analysis of the fragment from six herbicide‐resistant biotypes of P annua exhibited a substitution from valine to isoleucine at position 219 of the D1 protein encoded by the psbA gene. This is the same mutation as reported for Chlamydomonas and Synechococcus through site‐directed mutagenesis and in cell cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L. To our knowledge this is the first report of a higher plant exhibiting resistance in the field to photosystem II inhibitors due to a psbA mutation other than at position 264. The existence of additional biotypes of P annua resistant to diuron or metribuzin but lacking mutation in the herbicide‐binding region indicates that resistance to these herbicides can also be attained by other mechanisms.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Annual Bluegrass biotype with this Annual Bluegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 5 resistant Annual Bluegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) resistant Annual Bluegrass from Oregon indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) resistant Annual Bluegrass from Oregon please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

LEMMA MENGISTU
Department Of Plant Sciences
North Dakota State University
2237 Haden Road
Fargo, 58105, North Dakota
United States
Email Lemma Mengistu
GEORGE MUEULLER-WARRANT
Research Agronomist
USDA-ARS
Department of Crop and Soil Science
Crop and Soil Science Bldg.
Corvallis, 97331, Oregon
United States
Email George Mueuller-Warrant
Web   : Web Site Link

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Oregon have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Lemma Mengistu, and George Mueuller-Warrant for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Golf courses, and Turf endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5513
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16084
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses simazine 1 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16085
4 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16086
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses propyzamide/pronamide 1 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16087
6 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and rimsulfuron 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16088
7 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and rimsulfuron 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16089
8 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses simazine 1 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16090
9 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16091
10 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses propyzamide/pronamide 1 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16092
11 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and rimsulfuron 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16093
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses simazine 1 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16094
13 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16095
14 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16096
15 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses propyzamide/pronamide 1 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16097
16 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, endothall, foramsulfuron, glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, propyzamide/pronamide, rimsulfuron, and simazine 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16098
17 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses pinoxaden 1 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18189
18 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses pinoxaden 1 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18190
19 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides simazine 3 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass33
20 BelgiumBelgium 1983 Orchards amitrole 3 Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass38
21 BelgiumBelgium 1993 Hops paraquat 3 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass36
22 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1988 Orchards, and Railways atrazine, cyanazine, prometryne, and terbutryne 12 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass85
23 FranceFrance 1978 Orchards atrazine 17 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass464
24 FranceFrance 2015 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and mesosulfuron-methyl 17 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18180
25 GermanyGermany 1980 Orchards atrazine 18 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass449
26 JapanJapan 1982 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 25 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass117
27 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Orchards simazine 43 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass219
28 New ZealandNew Zealand 2020 Turf haloxyfop-methyl 30 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18203
29 NorwayNorway 1996 Nurseries simazine 31 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass388
30 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Hops paraquat 44 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass359
31 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass366
32 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1980 Pastures simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1166
33 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed ethofumesate 45 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/16)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass334
34 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed diuron 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass336
35 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed atrazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass338
36 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1060
37 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1996 Turf atrazine, and simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1187
38 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1997 Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1165
39 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2000 Grass seed diuron, and metribuzin 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/7)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18181
40 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2001 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5162
41 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2007 Golf courses, and Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5645
42 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2010 Turf glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5495
43 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Golf courses, and Turf glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5596
44 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, imazaquin, and trifloxysulfuron-Na 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5644
45 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5695
46 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2013 Golf courses, and Turf foramsulfuron, simazine, and trifloxysulfuron-Na 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass6765
47 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2013 Almonds glyphosate 45 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass7805
48 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2014 Golf courses foramsulfuron 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass10982
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