International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT WILD RADISH
(Raphanus raphanistrum)


Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Auxin Mimics HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)

Australia, Victoria
INTRODUCTION WILD RADISH
Wild Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) is a dicot weed in the Brassicaceae family.  In Victoria this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2009 and infests Spring Barley, and Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups 2 (Legacy B), and Auxin Mimics HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O).  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, and metosulam and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups 2 (Legacy B), and Auxin Mimics HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O).

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 22, 2014 )

Common NameWild Radish
SpeciesRaphanus raphanistrum
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

Auxin Mimics HRAC Group 4 (Legacy O)
Herbicides2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, and metosulam
LocationAustralia, Victoria
Year2009
Situation(s)Spring Barley, and Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Peter Boutsalis, and Christopher Preston 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Wild Radish biotype with this Wild Radish biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2, 4 resistant Wild Radish have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Wild Radish from Victoria please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

PETER BOUTSALIS
Postdoctural Fellow/ Consultant
University Of Adelaide / Plant Science Consulting
Plant And Pest Science
800 N Lindbergh Blvd
02G
Adelaide, 5064, South Australia
Australia
Email Peter Boutsalis
CHRISTOPHER PRESTON
Postdoctural Fellow/ Consultant
University Of Adelaide - Waite Campus
Crc For Australian Weed Management And School Of Agriculture
Box 2146
Adelaide, 5064, South Australia
Australia
Email Christopher Preston

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Victoria have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Peter Boutsalis, and Christopher Preston for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Wild Radish Globally
(Raphanus raphanistrum)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1997 Cereals, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, and metosulam 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish522
2 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1998 Cropland chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, and metosulam 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5033
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia1998 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, and metosulam 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5034
4 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1999 Lupins, and Triazine-tolerant canola atrazine, and simazine 1 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish1135
5 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia1999 Cereals 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5358
6 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2004 Cereals chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and triasulfuron 1 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5338
7 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2006 Cereals 2,4-D, diflufenican, MCPA, and triasulfuron 1 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5364
8 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, and metosulam 1 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7845
9 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2010 Fallow 2,4-D, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, glyphosate, imazethapyr, MCPA, metosulam, and sulfometuron-methyl 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7888
10 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2011 Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7846
11 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2013 Oats, Spring Barley, and Wheat 2,4-D 1 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7839
12 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2015 Wheat 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorsulfuron, diflufenican, fluridone, isoxaflutole, mesotrione, and tembotrione 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish19223
13 Australia (Western Australia) AustraliaWestern Australia2020 Wheat 2,4-D, dicamba, mesotrione, metsulfuron-methyl, pyroxasulfone, and topramezone 1 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish19219
14 BrazilBrazil 2013 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, imazapic, imazapyr, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulfometuron-methyl 5 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish7895
15 South AfricaSouth Africa 1997 Spring Barley, and Wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-Na, metsulfuron-methyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl 37 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
141Raphanus raphanistrumWild Radish5197
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