International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

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Status of Herbicide Resistance in Australia - Hugh Beckie : January, 2014

Western Canada (prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba) and Eastern Canada (primarily southwestern Ontario and Quebec) account for 88 and 12% of principal field annual crop area, respectively. Based on the proportion of total field area at prairie sites infested with herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds, it is estimated that 7.7 million ha (29% of annually cropped land in the prairies) are infested with HR weeds (eight-fold increase from 2001 to 2003), in a total field area of 9.9 million ha (37% of annually cropped land in the prairies) – over a two-fold increase. Group A/1 and/or B/2 wild oat (Avena fatua L.) are by far the most abundant and economically-damaging HR biotypes across the prairies. Numerous populations of Group B/2 wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and false cleavers (Galium spurium L.) across the prairies are also adversely impacting pulse crop (e.g., peas, lentils) production and quality. Glyphosate plus Group B/2 kochia (Kochia scoparia) is increasing rapidly across southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, primarily selected in chem-fallow or cereal-based cropped fields. In Eastern Canada (southwestern Canada), populations of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) are steadily increasing (selected primarily in glyphosate-resistant corn or soybean), as are multiple-resistant populations of these species (glyphosate + Group B/2).

Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Australia
Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Australia
Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Australia
State  
Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Australia
 #SpeciesCommon NameState NameFirst YearSite of Action

State: New South Wales

  1 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 19851 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
4
  2 Avena sterilisSterile OatAustraliaNew South Wales 19891 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
5029
  3 Avena fatuaWild OatAustraliaNew South Wales 19911 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
5
  4 Cyperus difformisSmallflower Umbrella SedgeAustraliaNew South Wales 19941 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
6
  5 Sagittaria montevidensisCalifornia ArrowheadAustraliaNew South Wales 19941 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
7
  6 Damasonium minusStarfruitAustraliaNew South Wales 19941 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
8
  7 Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardAustraliaNew South Wales 19941 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5035
  8 Sinapis arvensisWild MustardAustraliaNew South Wales 19961 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
1139
  9 Phalaris paradoxaHood CanarygrassAustraliaNew South Wales 19971 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
1137
  10 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 19971 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5094
  11 Fumaria densifloraDense-flowered FumitoryAustraliaNew South Wales 19991 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
1178
  12 Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinumHare BarleyAustraliaNew South Wales 20011 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
5098
  13 Avena sterilis ssp. ludovicianaSterile oatAustraliaNew South Wales 20021 Antimicrotubule mitotic disrupter (Z/25)
5198
  14 Echinochloa colonaJunglericeAustraliaNew South Wales 20041 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
5336
  15 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaNew South Wales 20041 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5338
  16 Sporobolus fertilisGiant Parramatta grassAustraliaNew South Wales 20041 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/26)
10965
  17 Avena fatuaWild OatAustraliaNew South Wales 20061 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Antimicrotubule mitotic disrupter (Z/25)
10966
  18 Echinochloa colonaJunglericeAustraliaNew South Wales 20071 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5297
  19 Urochloa panicoidesLiverseedgrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20081 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5362
  20 Chloris truncataWindmill GrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20101 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5509
  21 Conyza bonariensisHairy FleabaneAustraliaNew South Wales 20101 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5512
  22 Phalaris paradoxaHood CanarygrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20121 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
7840
  23 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaNew South Wales 20131 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
7839
  24 Sonchus oleraceusAnnual SowthistleAustraliaNew South Wales 20141 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
7892
  25 Chloris virgataFeather FingergrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20151 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
11026
  26 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20151 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
11031
  27 Conyza bonariensisHairy FleabaneAustraliaNew South Wales 20161 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
13045
  28 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20171 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
16093
  29 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20171 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
16094
  30 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20171 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
16095
  31 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20171 Unknown (Z/27)
16096
  32 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20171 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
16097
  33 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20171 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
Unknown (Z/27)
16098
  34 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20171 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
18189
  35 Avena sterilis ssp. ludovicianaSterile oatAustraliaNew South Wales 20181 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
18186
  36 Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galliBarnyardgrassAustraliaNew South Wales 20211 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
19214
  37 Rapistrum rugosumTurnipweedAustraliaNew South Wales 20211 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
19215

State: Queensland

  38 Sonchus oleraceusAnnual SowthistleAustraliaQueensland19901 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
23
  39 Polygonum convolvulus (=Fallopia convolvulus)Wild BuckwheatAustraliaQueensland19931 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
9
  40 Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardAustraliaQueensland19931 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
11
  41 Rapistrum rugosumTurnipweedAustraliaQueensland19961 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
528
  42 Sisymbrium thellungiiAfrican TurnipweedAustraliaQueensland19961 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
529
  43 Urochloa panicoidesLiverseedgrassAustraliaQueensland19961 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
530
  44 Avena sterilis ssp. ludovicianaSterile oatAustraliaQueensland20061 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
10967
  45 Mitracarpus hirtus Tropical GirdlepodAustraliaQueensland20071 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
5349
  46 Echinochloa colonaJunglericeAustraliaQueensland20091 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5514
  47 Conyza bonariensisHairy FleabaneAustraliaQueensland20111 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5604
  48 Brachiaria eruciformisSweet Summer GrassAustraliaQueensland20141 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
8921
  49 Eleusine indicaGoosegrassAustraliaQueensland20151 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
11024
  50 Solanum nigrumBlack NightshadeAustraliaQueensland20151 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
11025
  51 Chloris virgataFeather FingergrassAustraliaQueensland20151 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
11027
  52 Gamochaeta pensylvanicaPennsylvania EverlastingAustraliaQueensland20151 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
11029
  53 Conyza sumatrensisSumatran FleabaneAustraliaQueensland20181 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
17148
  54 Conyza sumatrensisSumatran FleabaneAustraliaQueensland20181 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
18161
  55 Avena fatuaWild OatAustraliaQueensland20181 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
18187
  56 Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrassAustraliaQueensland20191 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
18193

State: South Australia

  57 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaSouth Australia19821 Multiple Resistance: 7 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly (F4/13)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
Inhibition of Microtubule Organization (K2/23)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
389
  58 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaSouth Australia19841 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
398
  59 Avena fatuaWild OatAustraliaSouth Australia19881 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
20
  60 Avena sterilisSterile OatAustraliaSouth Australia19891 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
21
  61 Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardAustraliaSouth Australia19901 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
24
  62 Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth BarleyAustraliaSouth Australia19901 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
5031
  63 Digitaria sanguinalisLarge CrabgrassAustraliaSouth Australia19931 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
16
  64 Lactuca serriolaPrickly LettuceAustraliaSouth Australia19941 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
26
  65 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaSouth Australia19941 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
5226
  66 Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinumHare BarleyAustraliaSouth Australia19961 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
1143
  67 Brassica tournefortiiAfrican MustardAustraliaSouth Australia19961 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5202
  68 Echium plantagineumPatersons CurseAustraliaSouth Australia19971 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
1136
  69 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaSouth Australia19981 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5034
  70 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaSouth Australia19991 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5188
  71 Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth BarleyAustraliaSouth Australia20001 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
5095
  72 Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinumHare BarleyAustraliaSouth Australia20011 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
5203
  73 Diplotaxis tenuifoliaPerennial WallrocketAustraliaSouth Australia20041 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5219
  74 Pentzia suffruticosaCalomba daisyAustraliaSouth Australia20041 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5241
  75 Avena sterilis ssp. ludovicianaSterile oatAustraliaSouth Australia20051 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5252
  76 Mesembryanthemum crystallinumCrystalline IceplantAustraliaSouth Australia20051 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5255
  77 Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardAustraliaSouth Australia20051 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
5270
  78 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaSouth Australia20061 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
5364
  79 Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (=B. rigidus)Rigid BromeAustraliaSouth Australia20071 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
5298
  80 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaSouth Australia20081 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5515
  81 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaSouth Australia20101 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
5489
  82 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaSouth Australia20101 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5510
  83 Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (=B. rigidus)Rigid BromeAustraliaSouth Australia20111 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5579
  84 Bromus diandrusRipgut BromeAustraliaSouth Australia20111 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5580
  85 Bromus diandrusRipgut BromeAustraliaSouth Australia20111 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5597
  86 Conyza bonariensisHairy FleabaneAustraliaSouth Australia20111 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5605
  87 Galium tricornutumThreehorn BedstrawAustraliaSouth Australia20121 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
7837
  88 Sonchus oleraceusAnnual SowthistleAustraliaSouth Australia20151 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
10988
  89 Sonchus oleraceusAnnual SowthistleAustraliaSouth Australia20151 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
10989
  90 Chloris virgataFeather FingergrassAustraliaSouth Australia20151 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
11028
  91 Arctotheca calendulaCapeweedAustraliaSouth Australia20151 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
15055
  92 Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth BarleyAustraliaSouth Australia20161 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
17118
  93 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaSouth Australia20171 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
16084
  94 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaSouth Australia20171 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
16085
  95 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaSouth Australia20171 Unknown (Z/27)
16086
  96 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaSouth Australia20171 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
16087
  97 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaSouth Australia20171 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
16088

State: Victoria

  98 Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth BarleyAustraliaVictoria19841 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
19
  99 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaVictoria19841 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
5042
  100 Arctotheca calendulaCapeweedAustraliaVictoria19861 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
22
  101 Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinumHare BarleyAustraliaVictoria19881 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
18
  102 Vulpia bromoidesSquirreltail FescueAustraliaVictoria19901 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
17
  103 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaVictoria19961 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
380
  104 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaVictoria19991 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
5363
  105 Bromus diandrusRipgut BromeAustraliaVictoria19991 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
5467
  106 Nassella trichotomaSerrated TussockAustraliaVictoria20021 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/26)
5189
  107 Urtica urensBurning NettleAustraliaVictoria20021 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
5190
  108 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaVictoria20091 Unknown (Z/27)
5513
  109 Lactuca serriolaPrickly LettuceAustraliaVictoria20091 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5516
  110 Vulpia bromoidesSquirreltail FescueAustraliaVictoria20091 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
7841
  111 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaVictoria20091 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
7845
  112 Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardAustraliaVictoria20101 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
7842
  113 Sonchus oleraceusAnnual SowthistleAustraliaVictoria20101 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
7844
  114 Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardAustraliaVictoria20111 Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
5603
  115 Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardAustraliaVictoria20111 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
5712
  116 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaVictoria20111 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
7846
  117 Phalaris minorLittle seed Canary grassAustraliaVictoria20121 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
7838
  118 Chloris truncataWindmill GrassAustraliaVictoria20151 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
11021
  119 Lactuca serriolaPrickly LettuceAustraliaVictoria20151 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
11022
  120 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaVictoria20151 Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/8)
11023
  121 Sonchus oleraceusAnnual SowthistleAustraliaVictoria20151 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
15056
  122 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaVictoria20171 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
16089
  123 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaVictoria20171 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
16090
  124 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaVictoria20171 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
16091
  125 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaVictoria20171 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
16092
  126 Poa annuaAnnual BluegrassAustraliaVictoria20171 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
18190

State: Western Australia

  127 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaWestern Australia19821 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
15
  128 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaWestern Australia19841 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
324
  129 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaWestern Australia19841 Inhibition of Microtubule Assembly 2 (K1/3)
330
  130 Avena fatuaWild OatAustraliaWestern Australia19851 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
14
  131 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaWestern Australia19881 Inhibition of Lycopene Cyclase (F3/11)
316
  132 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaWestern Australia19881 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
480
  133 Brassica tournefortiiAfrican MustardAustraliaWestern Australia19921 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
12
  134 Sisymbrium orientaleOriental MustardAustraliaWestern Australia19941 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
3
  135 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaWestern Australia19971 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
522
  136 Echium plantagineumPatersons CurseAustraliaWestern Australia19971 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5030
  137 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaWestern Australia19981 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
5033
  138 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaWestern Australia19991 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
1135
  139 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaWestern Australia19991 Auxin Mimics (O/4)
5358
  140 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaWestern Australia20031 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5325
  141 Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucumSmooth BarleyAustraliaWestern Australia20051 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5251
  142 Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (=B. rigidus)Rigid BromeAustraliaWestern Australia20051 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
5253
  143 Echinochloa colonaJunglericeAustraliaWestern Australia20101 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
5581
  144 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaWestern Australia20101 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
7888
  145 Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (=B. rigidus)Rigid BromeAustraliaWestern Australia20111 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
5578
  146 Lolium rigidumRigid RyegrassAustraliaWestern Australia20131 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
6754
  147 Ehrharta longifloraLongflowered veldtgrass AustraliaWestern Australia20141 Inhibition of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (A/1)
8899
  148 Bromus rubensRed BromeAustraliaWestern Australia20141 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
10964
  149 Vulpia bromoidesSquirreltail FescueAustraliaWestern Australia20141 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
11030
  150 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaWestern Australia20151 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
19223
  151 Tridax procumbensCoat ButtonsAustraliaWestern Australia20161 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
14052
  152 Lactuca salignaWillow-leaved lettuceAustraliaWestern Australia20171 Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
17111
  153 Arctotheca calendulaCapeweedAustraliaWestern Australia20201 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Phytoene Desaturase inhibitors (F1/12)
Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (G/9)
19216
  154 Raphanus raphanistrumWild RadishAustraliaWestern Australia20201 Multiple Resistance: 4 Sites of Action
Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
Inhibition of Hydroxyphenyl Pyruvate Dioxygenase (F2/27)
Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis inhibitors (K3 N/15)
Auxin Mimics (O/4)
19219
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