International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
HRAC GROUP 5 (LEGACY C1 C2) RESISTANT LIVID AMARANTH
(Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus))


PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)

Switzerland, Valais
INTRODUCTION LIVID AMARANTH
Livid Amaranth (Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus)) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family.  In Switzerland this weed first evolved resistance to Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides in 1978 and infests Grapes.   Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides are known as PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (Inhbition of Photosynthesis at PSll - Serine 264 Binders ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to simazine and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 15, 2000 )

Common NameLivid Amaranth
SpeciesAmaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus)
GroupPSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders HRAC Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2)
Herbicidessimazine
LocationSwitzerland, Valais
Year1978
Situation(s)Grapes
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Jean Mayor 
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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Field, Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Livid Amaranth biotype with this Livid Amaranth biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 5 resistant Livid Amaranth have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 5 (Legacy C1 C2) resistant Livid Amaranth from Switzerland please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

JEAN MAYOR
St. Federal De Recherches, Agronomy De Changins
Service De Malherbologie
Weed Mgmt Program Lead - Horticulture
120 Main St, PO Box 400
Nyon, CH-1260
Switzerland

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Switzerland have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Jean Mayor for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Livid Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus))
Herbicide Resistant Livid Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus))
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Livid Amaranth Globally
(Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus))
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 FranceFrance 1981 Corn (maize) atrazine 17 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
13Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus)Livid Amaranth454
2 MalaysiaMalaysia 1990 Vegetables paraquat 28 PS I Electron Diversion (D/22)
13Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus)Livid Amaranth137
3 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1978 Grapes simazine 41 PSII inhibitors - Serine 264 Binders (C1 C2/5)
13Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus)Livid Amaranth196
4 United States (New Jersey) United StatesNew Jersey1993 Cabbages, Lettuce, and Onions imazethapyr 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (B/2)
13Amaranthus blitum (ssp. oleraceus)Livid Amaranth1167
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