International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
(Phalaris brachystachys)

ACCase inhibitors (A/1)

Iran, Golestan
Shortspike Canarygrass (Phalaris brachystachys) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Iran this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 2014 and infests Winter wheat.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and haloxyfop-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Jan 20, 2015 )

Common NameShortspike Canarygrass
SpeciesPhalaris brachystachys
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicidesclodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and haloxyfop-methyl
LocationIran, Golestan
Situation(s)Winter wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Javid Gherekhloo 
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Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Shortspike Canarygrass biotype with this Shortspike Canarygrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Shortspike Canarygrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Shortspike Canarygrass from Iran please update the database.
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Associate Professor
Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Agronomy Department
Gorgan, 49189-43464, Golestan
Email Javid Gherekhloo


The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Iran have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Javid Gherekhloo for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Shortspike Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris brachystachys)
Herbicide Resistant Shortspike Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris brachystachys)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Shortspike Canarygrass Globally
(Phalaris brachystachys)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 IranIran 2014 Winter wheat clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and haloxyfop-methyl 79 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
244Phalaris brachystachysShortspike Canarygrass10951
2 ItalyItaly 2001 Durum wheat, and Sugar beets clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, pinoxaden, and sethoxydim 24 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
244Phalaris brachystachysShortspike Canarygrass5615
3 SyriaSyria 2015 Faba beans, Potatoes, and Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 69 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
244Phalaris brachystachysShortspike Canarygrass15058
4 TurkeyTurkey 2008 Wheat clodinafop-propargyl, and pyroxsulam 71 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
244Phalaris brachystachysShortspike Canarygrass5398
Literature about Similar Cases

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